On his return to Sweden, Gustav III tried unsuccessfully to mediate between the bitterly divided parties. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. It was under King Gustav III that Sweden gained the small Caribbean island of Saint-Barthélemy from France in 1785 (in exchange for French trading rights in Gothenburg). He was able to avoid complete disaster in the Russo-Swedish War by his brilliant naval victory at Svensksund (July 1790), and he ended the war with a peace treaty the following month.  On 21 June 1771, he opened his first Riksdag with a speech that aroused powerful emotions. Gustav even designed and popularized a Swedish national costume, which was in general use among the upper classes from 1778 until his death (and it is still worn by the ladies of the court on state occasions). Gustav III was known in Sweden and abroad by his Royal Titles, or styles: 1. (Charles III of Spain, Catherine II of Russia, Gustav III of Sweden, Joseph I of Portugal) Gustav's immense powers were placed in the hands of a regency under his brother Prince Carl and Gustaf Adolf Reuterholm until his son and successor Gustav IV Adolf reached adulthood in 1796. The Grand Lodge conferred upon him the title "Vicarius Salomonis" (Vicar of Solomon).. Education and law. This is regarded as the greatest naval victory ever achieved by the Swedish Navy. The Russians lost one-third of their fleet and 7,000 men. He was now indeed their sovereign lord. Taking advantage of Russia’s war with Turkey, he declared war on Russia in 1788, but treasonous activity by the Anjala League, a group of Swedish officers on the Finnish front, along with Denmark’s entry into the war on the side of Russia, worsened his situation. The effort to remedy the widespread corruption that had flourished under the Hats and Caps engaged a considerable share of his time and he even found it necessary to put on trial the entire Göta Hovrätt, the superior court of justice, in Jönköping. The marriage produced two children: Crown Prince Gustav Adolf (1778–1837), and Prince Carl Gustav, Duke of Småland (1782–1783). A conspiracy to have the king assassinated and reform the constitution was created within the nobility in the winter of 1791–92. Because of the King turning backwards the shot went in at an angle from the third lumbar vertebrae towards the hip region. The dilapidated finances were set in good order by the "currency realization ordinance" of 1776. You may want to encourage students to dress in a costume. Following Gustav III's visit to Lyon, the aeronautics pioneers Montgolfier brothers in June 1784 launched a new hot air balloon called the Gustave in honor of the Swedish King, in which the first ever female aeronaut, singer Élisabeth Thible, took to the air. During dinner, he received an anonymous letter that described a threat to his life (written by the colonel of the Life guards Carl Pontus Lilliehorn), but, as the king had received numerous threatening letters in the past, he chose to ignore it. Regained the government under the control of the monarchy in a coup d’etat.  French, military career. At this juncture, the plotters were reinforced by Johan Christopher Toll, another victim of Cap oppression.  He was placed under the tutelage of Hedvig Elisabet Strömfelt until the age of five, then educated under the care of two governors who were among the most eminent Swedish statesmen of the day: Carl Gustaf Tessin and Carl Fredrik Scheffer. Due to the crowd, Pollet receded behind the King, who bent backwards to talk to Pollet. And after roughly ten minutes he said “this would have been an opportunity to shoot. Pray, allow an unknown whose pen is guided by tactfulness and the voice of conscience, dare take the liberty to inform You, with all possible sincerity, that certain individuals exist, both in the Provinces and here in the City, that only breathe hatred and revenge against You; indeed to the extreme of wanting to shorten Your days, through murder. This was a very new idea at the time. On the evening of 20 August, heralds roamed the streets proclaiming that the estates were to meet at the palace on the following day; every deputy absenting himself would be regarded as the enemy of his country and his king. By 1791 Gustav III aimed at forming a league of European monarchs to oppose the developing French Revolution. Omissions? It was in the foyer of the opera house that King Gustav III was assassinated. On 16 August, the Cap leader, Ture Rudbeck, arrived at Stockholm with news of the insurrection in the south, and Gustav found himself isolated in the midst of enemies. He undertook to seize the fortress of Sveaborg in Finland by a coup de main. On 21 August, the king appeared in full regalia. But in August 1772 he seized effective power of the government and established a new constitution which, replacing that of 1720, increased the crown’s powers at the expense of the Riksdag. His influence was so profound that an English traveler, upon seeing a Grecian temple in the far north, noted that its “magnificence and taste, like that monarch … [have] nothing in common with the country in which it has arisen.” By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The match was not a happy one, owing partly to an incompatibility of temperament, but still more to the interference of Gustav's jealous mother, Queen Louisa Ulrika. There were also rumors that the queen was made pregnant by Munck, who would then be the true father of the heir Prince Gustav Adolf. Gustav, by the Grace of God, of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vends King, Grand Prince of Finland, Duke of Pomerania, Prince of Rügen and Lord of Wismar, Heir to Norway and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, Stormarn and Dithmarschen, Count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst, etc. I dare, then, to appeal to You, by everything that is holy in this world, to postpone this damnable ball, to such times as are more positive for Your present as well as coming benefit..., To dare any possible assassins, the King went out into an open box facing the opera stage. Gustav also introduced new national economic policies. Stream songs including "Symphony No. GUSTAV III OF Sweden (1746-92) is one of the least studied of the later eighteenth-century rulers known as the Enlightened Despots. 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